Geofoam Particles Effect on Geotechnical Properties of Sandy Soils

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. of Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.


Nowadays new materials for improving bearing capacity of soils are widely used. Kind of new materials used in this regard are geosynthetics. Geofoam panel type of geosyntethic materials is useful and alternative for backfill in retaining wall or pavement layers. Main idea in this research is study geofoam particles effects on improvement bearing capacity of sand. Geofoam particles effects on sand in 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% percent were considered and sand was considered in granular and angular conditions. In order to evaluating geofoam particles influence in geotechnical properties of sandy soils some laboratory tests such as compaction, direct shear (in vertical stresses 1,2 and 3 kG/cm2) and permeability tests were performed. Results of this study showed that with increasing 0.15% percent geofoam in sandy soils maximum dry density went up, permeability decreased and shear strength of specimens increased. Although, geofoam particles is more effective in angular sandy soil than granular sand. 


Main Subjects

1- Stark, T., Bartlett S. and Arellano D., 2012, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Geofoam Applications & Technical Data, EPS Industry Alliance, Crofton, MD, Available at
2- Koerner R. M., 2005, Designing with geosynthetics, Pearson Education, Inc., 5th edition.
3- Krishnaswamy, N. R. and Sudhaker S., Application of Geosynthetics for the improvement of soft subgrade soils in road construction, Proc. of International e-conference on modern trends in foundation engineering conducted by IIT Madras, Chennai, India, January 26-30, 2004, available at 
4-Horvath, J. S., 1995, Geofoam Geosynthetic, Horvath Engineering, P.C., Scarsdale, NY, pp.229.
5- Elragi, A., 2000, Selected Engineering Properties and Applications of EPS Geofoam, Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York, Syracuse, N.Y.
6-Hazarika, H. 2006, Stress-Strain Modeling of EPS Geofoam for Large-Strain Applications, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 24, 79-90.
7- Saradhi, B. D., Ganesh, B. K. and  Tiong H. W., 2006, Effect of Polystyrene Aggregate Size on Strength and Moisture Migration Characteristics of Lightweight Concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 5, 520-527.
8-Negussey, D., 2007, Design Parameters for EPS Geofoam, Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Society, 47(1), 161-170.
9-Illuri, H.  K., 2007, Development of soil-EPS mixes for geotechnical applications, Ph.D Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
10-Aytekin, M., Banu, Ikizler S. and Nas, E., 2008, Laboratory Study of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geofoam used with expansive soils, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 26, 189-195.
11-Deng, A. and Xiao, Y., 2010, Measuring and Modeling Proportion-Dependent Stress-Strain Behavior of EPS-Sand Mixture, International Journal of Geomechanics, ASCE, 10, 214-222.
12-Najmaddin, D. Y. and Canakci, H., 2013, Compaction properties of sand mixed with modified waste EPS, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 31, 305–318.
13-Kan, A. and Demirboga, R., 2009, A new technique of processing for waste expanded polystyrene foams as aggregates, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 20, 2994-3000.
14-Heydarian, H., Nejad Shirazi, A. and Nasehi A., 2012, Study of Geofoam Weight Percent Effects on Bearing Capacity of Lighted Soil by Geofoam, Proc. 1st National Conference on Civil Engineering, Zibakenar, Iran, February, 1-6, (In Persian). 
15-Nejad Shirazi, A., Heydarian, H. and Jam, M. R., 2015, Study Strength Behavior of Soil and Geofoam Mixture with Several Weight Percent and Size of Geofoam, Proc. 10th International Conference on Civil Engineering, Tabriz, Iran, 15-22, (In Persian).  
16-Hasanpouri, N. N. and Dabiri R., 2018, Effects of Geofoam Panels on Static Behavior of Cantilever Retaining Wall, Advances in Civil Engineering, pp.1-18, 2018.
17-Hasanpouri, N. N. and Dabiri R., Effects of Geofoam Panels on Statically Behavior of Gravity Retaining Wall, Tarbiat Modares Journal of Civil Engineering, 2018, 18(5), 31-44.
18-ASTM D421-85, 1985, Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants, Annual book of ASTM standards, (reapproved 1998).
19-ASTM D422-63, 1963, Standard Test Method for article-Size Analysis of Soils, Annual book of ASTM standards (reapproved 1998).
20- ASTM D 854-02, 2003, Standard test method for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer, Annual book of ASTM standards.
21- ASTM-D 698-00, 2000, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)), Annual book of ASTM standards.
22-ASTM C305-14, 2014, Standard Practice for Mechanical Mixing of Hydraulic Cement Pastes and Mortars of Plastic Consistency, Annual book of ASTM standards.
23- ASTM D 3080-98, 1998, Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained condition, Annual book of ASTM standards.
25- ASTM D 2434-68, 2006, Standard test method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head), Annual book of ASTM standards.